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The following papers have been submitted for consideration:

Appraising the entrenching of sustainability into government procurement in Sub Saharan Africa: results from the public sector in South West Nigeria.
Author: Victor O. A. Adebayo, University of Westminster, United Kingdom

Purpose: Sustainable public procurement (SPP) enables the entrenchment of sustainable development goals in countries. In the last few years, several studies have examined the implanting of sustainability into public procurement; however, impirical studies on the incorporation of SPP in developing countries have been largely neglected.
Methodology: In an attempt to fill this research gap, the paper utilises a survey to examine the embedding of sustainability into public procurement in Nigeria. Results were achieved through questionnaires sent to 103 respondents working in the Nigerian public sector.
Findings: The findings of this study show that the main bottlenecks in implementing SPP in public sector organisations are the lack of top management support and the lack of expertise.
Originality: This paper contributes to the concepts of SPP and developing countries literature by integrating these areas into one study. At policy level, it gives more insight into the main bottlenecks in the embedding of sustainability into public procurement.
Keywords: sustainability; supplier relation management; procurement policy and processes; public sector; Nigeria; developing countries.

Poverty reduction through enabling factors
Author: Dr. Khurshed Alam, Chairman, Bangladesh Institute of Social Research Trust, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Purpose: The objective of this paper is to identify factors which were instrumental to poverty reduction opposed to many factors that were considered as impediments to poverty reduction in a poor country like Bangladesh. The paper argues that rather than focusing on ‘barriers’ to poverty reduction, a country needs to identify and focus on its ‘potential’ factors of poverty reduction. The state needs to play the facilitating role rather than the instrumental in the case of poverty reduction.
Design/Methodology/approach: The study is an outcome of descriptive assessment of literature to identify the potential factors that contributed to poverty reduction in a poverty stricken country. The literatures covered wide range of issues including sectoral contribution to economic growth but none has exclusively dealt with instrumental role of the poverty reduction factors.
Findings: In order to reduce poverty, rather than attempting to change the ‘culture of poverty’, remove the ‘structural trap’, or ‘kin system as poverty trap’ it can be achieved through harnessing the enabling factors of poverty reduction. Utilization of land and labour could bring a transformation in the rural economy of Bangladesh which was essential to poverty reduction. Harnessing country-specific enabling factors could leave the poverty behind where the dominant enabling factors for Bangladesh were agricultural development and remittance. Individuals could escape poverty largely through their own effort with policy support from the state.
Originality/value: The paper reveals instruments to poverty reduction where usual practice was to identify the barrier to development and to suggest the means of overcoming those barriers. It suggests how to look into the matter from other way round where instead of identifying the barrier attempt should be made to identify the enabling factors and to harness those enabling factors. The findings are based on the country experience reported in different literatures but not generalized in the form as attempted here. The paper is expected to show a means of poverty reduction where country-specific strategy or home-grown model can be drawn out based on identification of potential factors.

Benchmarking of academic studies of dietitians in King Abdulaziz university – A comparison with the European standards
Author: Dr. Elham Aljaaly, Head of the Clinical Nutrition Department, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To assess standards and comparability of the KAU first cycle dietetics qualification in comparison to European standards.
Methodology: The KAU curriculum content and methods for delivering the programme was compared with European countries based on the 2005 European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD) Benchmark survey and the used question to compare basic education programmes.
Findings: The programme leads to a BSc, delivered in English language and gives qualification as a clinical dietitian. Based on EFAD benchmarking, dietetic education is under the faculties of health programs, particularly in the curricula of Faculties of Applied Medical Sciences. KAU deliver a programme in 120 Week (theory) & senior students practice for 60 day/year, which is within the range for European countries. KAU admission to training in most European programmes is comparable with European countries and require 5 level subjects concerning natural sciences, mathematics, national language, English language and practical experience. The division of the theoretical programme follow the European one and include Basic Sciences, Food & Nutrition Sciences, Food Services Administration, Nutrition Education & Community Nutrition. It is obligatory for senior students to submit a project report using research methods for passing the examination. The duration of the KAU project is 30 weeks and the range for European countries is (2.3 – 40 weeks). Graduation is connected with registration in most of European programmes, which is the same for KAU. The programme does not use ECTS and use a KAU Credit System, which is 137 Credit hours ≈ 342.5 ECTS
Practical implications: For KAU dietetics students to confirm the use of their qualifications, competences and skills internationally, particularly throughout the European Higher Education Area.
Originality/value: The first study to benchmark a Saudi dietetic progarmme with EFAD standards. The study can help the Saudi Ministry of Education and other Higher Education Institutions who deliver dietetics programmes to recognise the students need and demand qualification which can use effectively for the purpose of their studies and careers in comparison to European standards.
Keywords: EFAD, European, clinical nutrition, education, research, competencies, benchmarking, 1st cycle degree

The competitiveness of energy-intensive industries in EU’s last members
Authors: Hasan Agan Karaduman and Feride Doğaner Gönel, Yildiz Technical University, Department of Economics, Turkey

Purpose: Despite the success in achieving the objectives for the use of renewable energy sources, the EU’s competitiveness is not at the desired level. In particular, the largest decreases in fossil-type energy intensity were observed in last 13 members of EU. However, it is important that how these countries protect the competitiveness of their energy-intensive industries.
Design/methodology/approach: The study uses revealed comparative advantage indices to measure the comparative advantage of EU-13 in energy-intensive industries for the period 1995-2014 and evaluate in the framework of EU’s climate policy
Findings: Some policies which make industries to adapt EU’s 20-20-20 targets, are forcing industries. In order to compete, these industries are leaving Europe and looking elsewhere. In this study we found that, particulary chemicals and non-metallic mineral manufactures resulted in a weakening of their CA over the years in some of these members. Similarly it is found that the RCA indices of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals are decreasing.
Originality/value: The study addresses the EU-13’s position in terms of their competitiveness and find the connection with the EU’s climate policy through their RCA of energy-intensive industries.
Keywords:European Union, energy-intensive industries, climate policy, energy policy, Revealed Comparative Advantage

Dealing with the worst case scenario of the 2015 Middle East immigration into France: an entrepreneurship perspective
Author: Prof. Alain Ndedi, Saint Monica University, Cameron
Purpose: The main focus of the paper is to address the current immigration crisis that the European Union is facing. Based on the fact that foreign entrepreneurs’ contribute to recipient economies, many countries are attempting to attract immigrants. This has been seen in many developed countries that have created special visas and entry requirements for immigrant entrepreneurs. The paper gives a roadmap on how to efficiently and effectively support Middle East migrants as future entrepreneurs in France.
Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the above, a thorough literature review is conducted on immigrant entrepreneurship. Immigrants are widely perceived as being highly entrepreneurial and important for economic growth and innovation. In this paper, the author provides an overview of the economics literature review on immigrant entrepreneurship mainly in English speaking countries.
Findings: The research found that France has not put in place any national programme on immigrants’ integration from entrepreneurship perspective. The French model is more assimilation, and the current study is just the filling the gap and will be welcomed.
Originality/value: This paper is an attempt to come up with workable propositions to deal with the current migration crisis in France from entrepreneurship perspective. This is a new move in a country like France which preferred assimilation programmes, rather than integration initiatives.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, France, Middle East.
Why integration policies matter from Middle East immigrants in France
Author: Prof. Alain Ndedi, Saint Monica University, Cameron
In 2015, immigration of Middle East citizens in France has been a matter of bitter public controversy. The most pressing moral issue in the controversy is the extent to which the France should continue to welcome poor immigrants, especially from Middle East. In each case controversy is compounded by disagreement about the best way to incorporate these newcomers immigrants in France. The two sources of political conflict are distinct. The justice or wisdom of policies in rich countries that create high volume immigration from poor citizens of poor countries has no necessary connection to the justice or wisdom of encouraging them to remain faithful to their inherited culture or to adapt to the French culture in ways that might radically alter theirs. The paper discusses this controversy in relation to France.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain how a gradual influx of Middle East immigrants of a distinct culture is little threat to France, since the immigrants will in large part assimilate the manners of France, their new home. The paper argued that, these newcomers will not wholly assimilate to the indigenous culture, but will contribute new elements to it. That is however an invigorating effect to the French culture. The new cultural elements of Middle East immigrants will be generally adopted if they are found to be compatible with the French society. Unfortunately, as argued by the paper, the French will not be assimilated unless the number of newcomers is great as literally to overwhelm French society.
Methodology: A literature review is conducted on countries that implemented integration opposite to assimilation policies to new immigrants, and how the results were outstanding.
Findings: The findings show that integration does not strictly entail assimilation; it can be accomplished through additive acculturation, a process whereby Middle East immigrants learn what is necessary to adapt to their new environment without forfeiting the practices and values that constituted their identity prior to immigration. The ultimate success of integration depends massively on individual immigrant and native citizens freely choosing to do things they have a right not to do, to live in mixed neighborhoods, to make friends across ethnic and religious divides, to show active goodwill across such divides, and the like.
Originality: This research showed that integration fails to the extent that an immigrant community is marginalized by the host society or practices self-segregation on the scale necessary to create and then sustain a partial societal culture.
Research limitations/implications: Future research need to focus on empirical research on immigrants’ integration. To this end, the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), which is a cross-country index of six main policy areas of the integration of immigrants, will be used. The Index encompasses the following items: 1) anti-discrimination, 2) access to nationality, 3) family reunion, 4) political participation, 5) labour market access, and 6) long-term residence.
Key words: Integration, Middle East, France, Culture.
Climate smart management options for improving the soil fertility and farm productivity in the middle hills of Nepal
Authors: S.K. Shrestha; B.K. Bishwakarma; R. Allen; A Dhungana, Sustainable Soil Management Programme (SSMP), Nepal

Purpose: Increasing food demand and climate change pose a major challenge to the sustainability of food production systems and safeguarding environmental health in Nepalese farming. Hence, this paper examines farmer-friendly climate smart management options, and analyses their importance, effectiveness and impacts on improving soil fertility and farm productivity.
Design/methodology/approach: adoptions of local resource based simple sustainable soil management and agronomic practices.
Findings: Adoption of these practices have resulted in a statistically significant increase in soil organic matter levels, and have improved soil fertility and structure, workability, and moisture characteristics. Soil organic matter reached a mean of 3.77% from 3.32% after adoption of sustainable soil management practices over the period of 1-3 years in 337 farm sites. The nitrogen content of topsoil significantly increased overall (0.17% to 0.2%) and in 3 of 5 time series. It has also increased productivity, enhanced income, improved food security, and a beneficial impact on the workload of women.
Keywords: Climate Change, Food Security, Farmyard Manure, Soil Fertility, Sustainable Soil Management, Soil Organic Matter.

The development of the great green wall in the sahel of Nigeria with some local constraints in sustainability
Author: Prof. Njidda M. Gadzama, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Purpose: The purpose of developing the Great Green Wall (GGW) Project financed by the United Nation’s GEF Trust Fund, is a pan African proposal in greening the Sahel of Africa from West (Dakar) to the east (Djibouti). It aims at reducing poverty and soil degradation in this region, taking into account the effects of desertification and climate change on sustainability of livelihoods.
Design/methodology/approach: Several desertification attenuation projects in Nigeria are employing different methods for maximum benefits obtainable from the objectives of the particular projects. As noted above however, the approach of GGW is to improve the alternative livelihoods of the people by their active participating in the implementation of the Project. It is also noted that environmental impact assessment, community reconnaissance or needs assessments might be initial part of pre-project activities, thereby making the communities more aware and educated of the impending environmental problems.
Findings: Desertification has reached an alarming state in Nigeria. The frontline desert threatened States of Nigeria constitute 40 % of the land mass of the country. With increased pressure of desertification, exacerbated by a period of prolonged drought of more than 20 years, climate change and human activities, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain sustainability in the management of the fragile lands and the region’s ecosystem. Strategic interventions in combating the problem of desertification in Nigeria have attenuated some of the detrimental social, economic and environmental impacts on the affected communities of the Sahel of the country. Programmes and projects have strengthened the resilience of the people, participating in sand dune stabilization, the Great Green Wall Sahara Sahel Initiative (GGWSSI) and other shelterbelt developments. Government has sustained inputs in environmentally friendly agriculture and also encouraged synergetic collaborative activities with international and national NGOs, International Agencies and local Institutions.
Originality and Value: These results/activities give evidence of the increased public awareness of environmental degradation due to desertification and climate change in Nigeria; the realization in environmental stabilization needs with ready participation of the communities for improved livelihoods in environmental activities and arid agriculture as supported by the National Great Green Wall (NAGGW) program of the country; resulting in internalization of these projects supporting livelihoods for sustainability in the Sahel of Nigeria. The scope of the activities of development, achievements with some constraints of the NAGGW are briefly summarized and discussed.
Keywords: Great Green Wall, desertification in the Sahel, drought and climate change, fragile ecosystem, environmental impacts, biodiversity loss, ecosystem management, community participation, sustainable management, livelihoods, synergetic collaboration.

An economic analysis of potential GCC economic and monetary union for sustainable development—Drawing from the European experience
Author: Dr. Subhadra Ganguli, Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain

Purpose: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has been set up in 1980s for strengthening cooperation and economic development of the region. However, the progress has been slow and the oil price plunge recently has led to concerns regarding sustainable development primarily due to the region’s dependence on oil and lack of diversification. The paper analyzes the scope for economic and monetary union of the GCC in the current backdrop of oil crisis and examines potential implication of a union for sustainable development of the GCC through price transparency, free trade, movement of labor and resources.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws its theoretical and practical approach from the experience of the Economic Union of Europe (using convergence criteria and growth and stability pact) in 1999. The paper analyses time series data of macro-economic variables (e.g. GDP, budget deficits, debt and others) for GCC during 2005-14 from UNCTAD, World Bank and IMF databases.
Findings: The paper concludes that GCC economies are very similar in terms of their structural and economic fundamentals. The paper shows convergence of the countries in terms of macroeconomic variables and concludes that economic and monetary union will contribute towards sustainable development of the region.
Originality/Value: The study is useful to policy makers, central banks, industry and researchers as it relates sustainable development in GCC to the economic and monetary union following the experience of the EMU.
Keywords: Economic and Monetary union, sustainable development, GCC, European Union, convergence criteria, GDP, debt, budget deficits

Europe: wither the fortress around the Mediterranean and Africa?

Christopher C. Nshimbi, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Inocent Moyo, University of South Africa (UNISA), South Africa

Purpose: This paper interrogates European Union (EU)-Africa relationships on international migration issues. Europe has long been branded a fortress against foreigners, despite enacting numerous legislations, policies and practices accommodating third country nationals. Recent media and humanitarian organization reports of surging African and Middle Eastern refugees and migrants bring into sharp focus and test these immigration measures, as Europe searches for optimal solutions to the migration crisis.
Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on the evolving field of border studies and attempts to frame the EU-Africa relations on migration in the context of the concepts, borders, boundaries and frontiers. A thorough review and critical analysis of relevant legislations, literature and media reports on the Africa-Europe migration interface is also conducted.
Findings: The militarisation, securitization, restrictive and, sometimes, draconian immigration regimes do not provide sustainable solutions to the migration crisis facing Europe. A rethinking around the integration and inclusion of immigrants into Europe’s socioeconomic fabric, and addressing fundamental and structural weaknesses in EU-Africa relationships and respective economies is essential.
Originality/value: Theoretically, the paper attempts to understand better, the way the EU and Africa engage each other on international migration issues, in the context of border studies. Empirically, the paper positions itself in policy engagements and the quest for practical solutions by the two continents in view of the migration crisis currently facing Europe.
Keywords: Borders, Migration, Social cohesion, Social inclusion, EU-Africa migration interface, Fortress Europe

FDI spillover effects on Asia-Pacific sustainable productivity growth
Authors: Elsadig Musa Ahmed and Rahim Kialashki, Multimedia University, Malaysia

Purpose: The objective of the study is to examine the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) spillover effects on sustainable productivity growth of selected Asia-Pacific countries such as (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand, China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand).
Design/methodology/approach: The extensive growth theory that is expressed the decomposition of contribution of changes in labour force, physical capital, FDI, human capital, telecommunications investment and TFP growth on selected Asian Pacific countries output growth is used in this study. In this respect, an annual time series data over the period of 1970 to 2012 for the aforementioned variables is employed.
Findings: The study found that the FDI spillover effects through the total factor productivity (TFP), considered being productivity driven economic growth in which FDI spillover effects has significant effect on productivity growth of the majority of these countries. It should be noted that most of these countries showed technological progress through FDI spillover effects that is translated into form of technology transfer and human capital skills development.
Originality: This study empirically compared the FDI spillover effects on sustainable productivity growth of the most growing countries in Asia-Pacific region by using modified extensive growth theory that closed the gaps in the past studies and addressed the issues of technology transfer, human capital development and sustainable productivity growth brought by the technical progress in these countries through the FDI spillover effects on productivity growth.
Keywords: FDI spillover effects, Asian Pacific selected countries, sustainable productivity growth

A quick method to find the optimum lane groups at signalized intersection
Authors: Khaled J. Assi and Nedal T. Ratrout, King Fahd University of Petroleum and minerals, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: Many researches were conducted about the effectiveness of dynamic lane grouping at signalized intersections but very little attention was given to the method of identifying quickly the optimum lane group. This research suggests a quick method to find the optimum lane group for 3- lane and 4-lane approaches using the percentage of turning movements.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Matlab environment was used to build an optimization model to find the optimal lane groups at all intersection approaches for a hypothetical massive traffic demand combinations using an objective function of minimizing intersection delay.
Findings: The findings of this research show that the optimum lane group can be predicted at any approach by using the percentage of turning movements at this approach regardless the effect of other approaches.
Originality/Value: This study addressed the practical implementation of dynamic lane grouping at signalized intersections and suggested a quick method to predict the optimum lane group
Keywords: Signalized intersection, Dynamic lane grouping, Optimum lane grouping

Future capacity building – impact on sustainable innovation
Author: Dr. Raimund Schwendner, istob Management Academy, Germany

Europe at a crossroads – a challenge that affects in particular sustainable innovation. On the one hand, it is expected to take a lead position in order to cope with climate change, scarcity of resources and smart technologies. On the other hand, social innovation, growing public awareness and quality of live become key issues for comprehensive problem-solving. This in sum requires systemic crisis prevention within the framework of economic, ecological, social and technological co-development. At its head, future capacity building is designed to incubate novel competences and to pioneer leadership learning that transform personnel, organizational and functional boundaries. This approach emphasizes circular strategic thinking and multi-faceted goal setting. It incorporates anticipatory problem solving, salutogenetic growth, precautionary conflict resolution and maturity of innovation.
Purpose: The purpose is to strengthen sustainable innovation and to transform it into novel education and corporate learning.
Design/methodology/approach: Background of this paper are studies on Sustainable Strategies for Corporate Change that have been conducted in collaboration with GIZ (Dt. Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) and forty leading European companies. These studies refer to modern systems thinking and human capacity development.
Findings: The studies reveal a biased understanding of “sustainability” to be dealt with, as business leaders and decision makers frequently feel trapped in a balancing act that appears to be difficult to handle. It comes in particular true, when innovation is linked to management of diversity or when it needs to be transformed into multi-project- and multi-process-management. Both, integrated paradigm management and entrepreneurial education enhance competences to overcome such constraints.
Originality/value: Capacity building is mostly related to paradigm change. Yet, there is an eminent risk at hand: shifting topics without creating relevant space for ample solutions leads into “paradigm-washing”, comparable to green-washing. This way, altered paradigms may remain as narrow as the old ones. In contrast, future capacity building synthesizes a broad scope of methodologies, far-reaching leadership skills and ample management of diversity.
Practical implications: Entrepreneurial education engenders mature innovation as well. Being at the core of future capacity building, it fosters sustainable policies, strategies and methodologies.
Social implications: Companies and communities disclosure a wide range of sustainability-related efforts. Some set up limited activities in restricted areas; whereas others focus on far reaching systems change. As a result, it takes well-designed meta-strategies to move from few specific activities in selected, if not restricted areas towards systemic innovation and applicable adaptation.
Keywords: human capacity development, future mediation, ecological economy, sustainable innovation.

The impact of social capital on sustainable development: The case of Europe
Prof. Shafiq Alvi, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
Prof. Amer Al-Roubaie, Ahlia University, Bahrain

Purpose: The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of social capital in sustaining development in Europe. There are many human and environmental challenges facing European countries including energy, climate change, migration, urbanization, unemployment, governmental insolvency, political fractionation and, on its periphery, low-intensity warfare. Responding to such challenges will require societies to learn, to adopt new attitudes and to work together to strengthen the fundamentals for building capacity for sustainable development.
Design/Methodology/approach: This study is a descriptive assessment of the role that social capital plays in sustaining development. The methods used involve research done in the field and a review of the current literature on social capital. The subject of social capital has not been empirically tested and most of the literature written on the subject is in a descriptive form.
Findings: Sustainable development, which requires the support and participation of individuals, groups and nations, is linked to the management of the environment. Social capital fuels sustainable development by bringing together all actors in society to advance change. The future of society depends on what kind of social capital is being produced. Alternatively, lack of cooperation and trust among individuals, groups and states undermines social capital.
Originality/value: This paper consists of analysis of the nature, magnitude and rate of increase of social capital in Europe over the past two decades, and how that social capital can be employed by decision-makers to overcome some of the major challenges facing Europe. The role played by the social capital in sustaining development remains inadequate and, therefore, this paper is expected to shed some light on the importance of social capital in sustaining development.

Management of medical technology for sustainable reliability
Author: Dr Sushil Varma, National Service Manager, Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Ltd., New Zealand

Medical technology is constantly evolving to improve and prolong the lives of people. With the constant evolution of medical technology comes the constant challenge of managing the technology to ensure proper safety and function.
Purpose: This paper reports on an exploratory study conducted on New Zealand hospitals investigating how biomedical engineering departments can maintain reliability and meet growing demand for efficiency and safety.
Design/Methodology/Approach: This research is exploratory therefore a qualitative research approach using New Zealand public hospitals as case studies has been employed.
Findings: Discusses findings from two case studies and reports how hospitals can structure their biomedical engineering departments to efficiently manage medical technology to meet the growing demand and safety.
Originality/Value: This study provides valuable information on the management of biomedical technology.
Keywords: biomedical engineering, medical technology, management, safety and hospital.

Micro dynamics of sustainable national competitiveness and growth

Author: Jurgita Staniulyte, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Recent macroeconomic data shows that Europe has been falling behind other regions of the world in knowledge creation and innovation. With my research I explore the factors of this relative decline by employing the National Innovation System (NIS) approach and contrasting it with the Neoclassical Growth theory theoretically and empirically.
Purpose: to introduce, explore and test non-price competitiveness measured by social and institutional factors. I use panel data for 37 European countries (1980-2008).
Methodology: includes factor and cluster analysis to detect variance among variables and country groups. Also, panel fixed and random effects models to analyse within group variation amongst social, institutional and economic factors and factor relationships across all countries.
Contribution: showing conceptually and empirically that social and institutional factors are equally important compared to economic factors in knowledge creation, innovation and quality growth in Europe.
Keywords: knowledge creation, sustainable growth, non-price competitiveness, social and institutional factors, absorptive and innovative capabilities.

Practice of anthropometry for adolescents in Saudi Arabia and the need for sustainability of the practice: lessons from the UK

Author: Dr. Elham Aljaaly, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To approach and commend the national organizing bodies for nutrition and dietetic services in Saudi Arabia to learn lessons from the UK in endorsing and standardizing the practice of anthropometry for adolescents. This in order to ensure good quality and sustainability of this practice.
Design/methods: A practice evaluation survey to define and judge dietetic practice concerning anthropometric assessment for adolescent group in 10 governmental and private operating hospitals in Jeddah City. Hospitals with bed capacity of more than 150 beds and has at least four dieticians were included in the survey.
Findings: Membership with the Saudi Dietetic Association (SDA) was confirmed by only 10% of hospital dietitians, where none of the UK dietitians can practice the profession if not been registered by the British Dietetics Associations (BDA). Standards for practice followed were either national (10%) or international (60%) and both (30%). This is individualized by each dietetics department and is not unified or governed by a national organization body. Mostly (80%) of the practicing dietitians identify their individual scope of practice and the use of growth charts and reference data in assessing the growth of their patients. Lessons to learn from the BDA is to apply sustainability and resilience to all aspects of nutrition and dietetics practice, which are broader than any one specific practice setting or individual intervention.
Conclusion: The present study examines practices of anthropometry for adolescents in Jeddah hospitals, to identify enablers and obstacles for this type of assessment.
Originality/value: We predict this study will highlight the importance of standardizing the practice of anthropometric assessment among adolescent group. The study is also a call for the SDA to emphasize its role in governing and defining guidelines in all scopes of dietetics practice.
Keywords: Dietetics, Practice, adolescents, Anthropometry, assessment, Saudi Arabia

Public goods, sustainable development and business accountability
Author: Dr. Roland Bardy, Florida Gulf Coast University, Naples, USA

Sustainable Development is about preserving public goods. In consequence, whoever uses them is liable for their maintenance and, where they are underdeveloped, for their built-up and expansion. “Paying” for the usage of public goods is taken care of by taxes and excise, and there are methodologies around to measure externalities However, the magnitude of public goods usage is rarely measured on national, regional or local levels, let alone in monetary terms. When statistical indicators are set up, there are almost none that link the macro-sphere to the business level. Also, businesses are often reproached for using public goods for free. Businesses might want to be able to demonstrate that they earn a “return” on the capital invested in public goods they use and that the taxes they pay are at least on par with this return. Hence measuring their value should be a concern to corporations and to policy makers.
Purpose: to present a linkage between performance measurement at the business level and the concept of public goods usage, and a linkage between the micro- and macro-economic aspects of sustainability.
Design/methodology/approach: exhibiting the essentials of a public goods cost perspective in order to agitate discussion between statisticians, standard-setters for business reporting and practitioners who wish to explore new approaches in the topic of building performance indicators.
Findings: showing what has been achieved in measuring the outcomes of sustainable development efforts and what still needs to be done in order to arrive at aggregate values for national and global commons.
Research limitations/implications: Linking performance measurement at the business level to public goods usage will depend on the co-operation of businesses and national statistics which test the feasibility of monetary indicators for both the micro- and the macro-levels through numerical studies.
Practical implications: For practitioners in both the statistics profession and management accounting who are concerned with measurement of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena, this attempt at integrating sustainable development indicators and the managerial control system of companies might provide a valuable proposition. It also is a helpful contribution to the ongoing debate about the value and credibility of sustainability reporting.
Social implications: If businesses make no attempts to exhibit numerically how they contribute to preserve and expand the societal commons, they will be confronted with ever-growing agitation from pressure groups and they might be bypassed in the discussion on the issue of sustainability parameters that those groups are advocating.
Originality/value: This is the first academic paper that demonstrates a reporting model that unites business accounts and national accounts.
Keywords: Public Goods, Sustainable Development, Business Accountability, Valuation, Externalities, Corporate Performance.

State level achievements of MDG- indicators in India during 1993-94 – 2013-14
Authors: Ranajit Chakrabarty, Former Professor of Management, Calcutta University
Mahuya Chakrabarti, Assistant Professor of Economics, Bethune College, Kolkata
Ayan Chattopadhyay, Senior Manager- Zonal Marketing (East), Future Retail Ltd.

Purpose: According to the Government of India 2015 report on MDG, India is yet to achieve almost 50% of the goals set by UN. India being characterized by her diversity, progress in terms of the indicators of MDGs for the country as a whole averages out the prevailing state level variations. This paper attempts to explore the status of these goals during 1993-94 – 2013-14 at state level using 12 targets and 35 indicators relevant for India along with an attempt to explain inter-state variations in this regard.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Using the TOPSIS method, a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method, the states have been ranked in terms of all the indicators of MDGs. These ranks were then analyzed using socio-economic and political factors to understand the root cause of variation.
Findings/Limitations: Ranking of the states considering all the indicators reveals the actual scenario in an effective way. The factors like state domestic product, state wise standard of education level, social backwardness and political leadership help in finding the link between the derived ranks and these socio-economic and political factors.
Originality/ Value: Previous studies in this area have been carried out taking the indicators separately. However without a comprehensive idea with all the indicators, the overall impact cannot be understood effectively. This study is novel since it takes into account each state with respect to all the indicators taken together thereby providing a comprehensive view on the variation in the MDG goals achievement.
Keywords: MDGs, MCDM, TOPSIS, SDP, Education, Social Backwardness, Political Leadership.

Quality of life : MDGs, poverty and vulnerable populations
Author: Aisha Ansari, MPH, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, United states

Purpose: Paper purpose is a contribution to existing poverty research , causes of poverty and possible interventions, and recommendations in vulnerable population poverty , links in our man-built environment and quality of life.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Design is based on triangulation and mixed methods in qualitative, and quantitative literature review.
Findings/Limitations: Findings in vulnerable populations suggest poverty being experienced globally, as evidenced in chronic illness, and social disparities in our communities, while resources, aid, and MDGs are routinely revised in outcomes and expectations.
Original Value: Quality of life being a natural and divine right can be measured beyond scientific findings and empirical values.
Keywords: MDGs, elderly, children, physically and mentally challenged, poverty, government aid and entitlement, and government insurance.

Review of the effects of insurgency on sustainable healthcare development in north-east Nigeria
Dr. Ibrahim N. Mamadu, Centre for Alternative Sustainable Livelihoods (CASELS), Nigeria
Dr. Zara W. Wudiri, Department of Community Medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Purpose: To analyze and highlight the effect of insurgency on healthcare outcomes in the developing world and its implications for future migratory patterns.
Design/methodology/Approach: A review of available information and publications on the above subject was carried out. Information was sourced from online databases, journals, websites, and reports.
Findings: Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a population of about 170 million. Over the last decade it has attempted to make gains in improving the healthcare of its citizens sustainably in line with its commitment to the Millennium Development Goals. In recent times however much of the progress made has been reversed in the North-East of the country due to a home grown insurgency by Boko-Haram militants. This region had some of the worst health indices in the country prior to this insurgency. In that region since 2009 more than 13,000 civilians have been killed and as many as 1.5 million displaced, with the highest number of attacks taking place in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States. In the State of Borno; the epicenter of the insurgency, 537 primary health centres, 38 secondary health centres and 2 tertiary centres existed of which about a third have been destroyed by insurgents also killing an unspecified number of health workers. Migration from that region has been mainly internal and across borders to Niger, Chad, and Cameroun with some affected persons joining the steady flow of migrants to Europe from other conflict ridden zones in the middle-East and Africa. While Nigerian troops and a West African multinational coalition force are making large gains in retaking territory from the insurgents, the rebuilding of critical infrastructure across the region is a long way from beginning. Without a concerted international effort at stabilizing this region and rebuilding the socio-economic and healthcare infrastructure there will be a continuous flow of displaced persons turning up in the country’s neighbors and ending up in other continents, further increasing the resources required to provide social services for these individuals and added security checks for immigrants.
Originality and Value: The results highlight the need for the international community to assist in the rebuilding of infrastructure and systems in the insurgency affected regions and stem the tide of displaced people and migrants from the source. Reports from the healthcare angle have not been highlighted internationally and will require increased attention and funding.
Keywords: Insurgency, Migration, Boko-Haram, Healthcare, Developing countries, Africa, Middle east, MDGs, Nigeria

SDG-3 and middle eastern drug policies: strengthening harm-reduction and treatment
Author: Alexander Soderholm, London School of Economics and Political Science, London

Purpose: analysing and highlighting the relationship between drug policies and harm reduction strategies with the sustainable development goals
Design/Methodology/Approach: analysing the drug policies of Middle Eastern countries, contrasted with associated drug-related statistics and human development indicators
Findings: the international drug control system has serious implications for development in Middle Eastern countries, gap in harm reduction and treatment services
Social/Practical Implications: facilitating the expansion of drug-related harm reduction and treatment in the Middle East
Originality/Value: research on the nexus between development and drugs is quite unexplored, and traditionally connected to enforcement-based approaches and theories
Keywords: Drug Policy, Sustainable Development Goals, Harm Reduction, Public Health, Middle East, Opioid Substitution Therapy, Human Rights, Drug Trafficking, Alternative Development, Alternative Livelihoods

An inquiry into success factors influencing the choice of a beneficial foreign market
Author: Dr. Marwan Al Qur’an, Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Jordan

Purpose: Very little attention was given in the existing literature to the international market selection by Arabian international firms. Therefore, this exploratory research examines critical success factors contributing to the successful selection of beneficial international markets.
Design/Methodology/Approach: As an endeavor to provide rich and deep insights into critical success factors in international market selection process, it was imperative to adopt the case study method as it allows to, deeply, exploring all aspects involved in the decision-making process undertaken in selecting foreign markets. Two comparative and rich-information case studies were purposefully selected from among Saudi large international firms. Furthermore, six international market selection decisions were examined within these two cases through relying on several data sources: in-depth face to face interviews, short telephone and follow-up interviews and questionnaire instrument as primary data sources besides field notes, documents review when available and internet sources as secondary data sources. Two main stages of analysis were undertaken in the current research, namely, within and cross-case analyses
Findings: The empirical findings of the extant research show that a thorough consultative and strategic decision process should be considered to attain effective international market selection decisions. Results reveal also that four critical factors contributing to the successful selection of beneficial international markets by Arabian international firms, i.e., (1) international business experience of the selected IMS team, (2) the market knowledge about the potential international markets, (3) in-house and external consultations with international business experts and (4) identification of a trustworthy and internationally experienced manager for the international operation
Originality/Value: The research findings provide theoretical and practical implications to the internationalization and international market selection. Further, it provides important methodological contributions to international business research in relation to an effective multiple case study approach to capture elements of the comprehensive and complex international market selection process.
Keywords: Success factors, international market selection, Arabian international firms.

The success of incubators, accelerators and innovations: A case study
Dr. Hanadi Mubarak Al-Mubaraki, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Prof. Michael Busler, Richard Stockton College, USA

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate and identify the strengths and weaknesses of Incubators, Accelerators and Innovations (IAI). The identification used six indicators.
Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the aim, the research uses qualitative approach consisting of a review of the literature, several organizational documents included annual internal reports, and two international interviews located in the UK.
Findings: The research findings indicated the strengths and weakness of selected (IAI) programs such as University of South Wales, which presents high indicators 85% and the University of Anglia Ruskin, which presents medium indicators 75%.
Conclusion: The authors conclude that the strengths and weaknesses of (IAI) programs will be guidelines for academia and practitioners such as governments, policy makers, funded organizations, universities and strategic institutions for successful implementation.
Keywords: Innovation, accelerators, incubators and economic growth.
Paper type: Research paper

Ramadan fasting among pregnant women with diabetes: an international neglected phenomenon
Author: Dr. Nagat Elzein Eltoum, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, KSA

Purpose: to explore the literature looking for European or international guidelines about the management of diabetes during Ramadan fasting among pregnant women
Design/methodology/approach: Systematic database searches using Scopus, PubMed, Medline and Web of science with key words “Ramadan fasting”, “diabetes”, and “pregnancy” was conducted in November 2015
Findings: there are only two studies conducted in United Kingdom and two studies in the Islamic majority countries; mainly in Malaysia with a total sample size of 358 and 67 respectively
Originality/ Value: Despite the fact that Muslim pregnant women are exempted from fasting during Ramadan, it is documented that some of pregnant women with diabetes choose to fast. This review was conducted to assist in developing sustainable evidenced based care for this group of women. The findings reflected an urgent need for more studies to investigate the prevalence of Ramadan fasting among diabetic women and its effect on maternal and fetal wellbeing
Keywords: Ramadan fasting, diabetes, pregnancy 

Bayesian estimation of proportion of women engaged in Sudan agricultural development: an R-WINBUGS application
Author: Dr. Siraj Osman Omer, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan

Purpose: The objective of this paper is to estimate the proportion of women engaged in Sudan agricultural development. The study was used classical and Bayesian approaches where the best of the six priors were chosen for posterior estimation proportion.
Design/methodology/approach: The agricultural studies graduate’s data from governmental universities in Sudan for 2010-2011 were used. R2WinBUGS software for Bayesian inference on Binomial parameters can be used.
Findings: The results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.01) between classical estimation of female (67%) points compared that with male students (33 %). The Bayesian estimate of the proportion of women was found as 68(±) % when the prior distribution was beta (0.5, 0.5) and 67(±) for beta (2, 2).
Practical implications: Bayesian approach for statistical inference in this study is useful and acceptable in gender studies. Bayesian estimation has been outlined of proportion of women engaged in Sudan agricultural development.
Keywords: Bayesian estimation, binomial distribution, R-lanague, WINBUGS

Small entrepreneurs finance by Islamic banks: an empirical review
Author: Dr. Mohammed Nurul Alam, Canadiaan University Dubai, UAE

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to delineate the ‘shariah[1]’ based Islamic Banking finance and to see as to how and to what extent the Musharaka (Partnership) mode of financing works while lending funds to different rural-based small entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to explore the success of Islamic Banks in extending credit facilities through the Musharaka mode of financing to its clienteles in a particular country context.
Design/methodology/approach: An Institutional-Network theoretical frame of references is used to study this particular phenomenon. The research methodology applied in the study is of a qualitative nature. A multiple explanatory case study is adopted as a research strategy in order to focus on contemporary phenomenon within the real life context of small entrepreneurs in rural Bangladesh.
Findings: Among others, the finding includes the extent to which ‘Musharaka’ mode financing by the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) contributes in developing network relationships between the lenders and the borrowers and other related economic actors in a society. The finding also reveals the impact of societal sector institutions in accelerating the Islamic financing activities in a particular socio-cultural environment.
Research limitations/implications: The study is mainly relates to the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited and its clienteles’ concerning the small entrepreneurs in rural Bangladesh.
Practical implications: Since lending organizations under Islamic Financing System (IFS) render services to their clienteles without interest, the lender-borrowers relationships is featured by ‘in kind’ rather than cash and a close supervision of their borrowed funds. Apart from ‘Musharaka’ mode of financing, while lending funds to its customers; the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited invests funds under other different ‘shariah’ based investment modes of funding like the Mudaraba, Murabaha and Bai-Muajjal.
Originality/value: The study is based on the socio-cultural context of Bangladesh where the paper premised on its theoretical perspective and ‘Institutional-Network Approach’ in the field of ‘Musharaka’ mode of Islamic finance towards rural based small entrepreneurs

[1] Sharia means the moral code and religious law of a prophetic religion
Sustainable development and radiology
Author: Dr. Naglaa Mostafa Elsayed Abdallah, 1) ‘Faculty of applied medical sciences, diagnostic radiology department, King Abdulaziz university’, 2) ‘Faculty of medicine, diagnostic radiology department, Cairo university’

Purpose: To highlight the relation between radiology and sustainable development in Europe and Middle East countries.
Methodology: This is a review article where data about sustainable development and radiology are collected from selected journals, web sites, articles and conferences e.g. Royal College of Radiology, European society of radiology, WHO, and other national and international radiology societies.
Findings: In Europe, most medical and radiological organizations adopt and support sustainable development to allow people to live in a healthy, ecologically assorted environment. This trend is new for Middle East countries.
Practical implications: Limiting the use of radiologic examinations, guide the clinicians to use clinical skills before rushing to radiology examinations will save money, preserve equipment and protect patients from possible radiation hazards. The use of teleradiography will indirectly reduce global warming, and will also deliver medical services to poor countries that lack expert radiologists.
Social implications: Improving the health of people of poor countries to improve their socioeconomic level.
Originality: This article focuses on the value of applying sustainable development in radiology not only in medicine in general.
Keywords: Radiology- sustainable- development- teleradiology- developing countries- Europe- Middle East.

Nutrigenomics: use of personalized diet to prevent The onset of disease and optimize human health
Author: Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: Providing an insight on the nutrigenomics research concentrating on Europe for bringing: (1) Public understanding about the changing food habits and lifestyle. (2) How nutrigenomics can contribute in making life healthier. (3) Support additional research in this area.
Methodology: Concentrating on Europe, a literature search on nutrigenomics was conducted by  using different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, Scopus and views for the European Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO) reports, publications and newsletter.
Findings: Diet interrelates with the genotype to produce a phenotypical change. It has a significant effect on health and chronic disease. Functional genomic techniques could let the bioactivities of food ingredients to be described. Results showed the possibility to identify gene polymorphisms, which predispose persons to disease and adapt nutritional needs. Variances in genetic makeup (genotype) are causes in different diseases. Nutrigenomics explain why some people can control disease with diet, while others need drugs.
Practical implications: Training a new generation of European scientists to practice nutrigenomics.
Social implications: Enable targeting of nutritional advice and treatment to “at risk” groups.
Originality/value: Nutrigenomics is expected to significantly contribute to personalized medicine.
Keywords: Nutrigenomics; Europe; Diet-Gene Interaction; Personalized Nutrition.

The use of green materials and systems in UAE construction projects – A baseline study
Authors: Mr. Aly El Gayar, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Dr. Salwa M. Beheiry, American University of Sharjah, UAE
Ms. Alaa Jabbar, Sumer Building Contracting, Dubai, UAE
Mr. Hamad Al Ansari, Masdar Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Purpose: Over the past decade, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) introduced several green regulatory guidelines, federal decrees and a considerable number of environmentally friendly initiatives. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the top green materials and systems used currently in the UAE construction industry as per the new laws dictate as well as see if professionals are switching over to incorporate more green materials, systems and/or designs.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The work involved reviewing internationally popular green materials and systems for construction, developing a questionnaire based on the literature review, surveying professionals in the 7 UAE emirates, and ranking the findings based on the Relative Importance Index (RII).
Findings: Findings found the top used green materials and system in the UAE’s construction industry. As well as identified that there is a communication gap between the design and implementation phases that is possibly hindering the use of more green materials and systems.
Originality/Value: This study sets a baseline to measure the UAE’s progress over the coming years in terms of integrating more green construction materials, systems, methodologies and trends.
Keywords: Green Materials and Systems, United Arab Emirates, UAE, Construction Industry, Energy and Resource Efficiency, Sustainability, Baseline Studies.

Investigations of the traffic calming and its influence on the environmental pollution
Author: Dr. Robert Ziolkowski, Bialystok University of Technology, Poland

Purpose: Traffic calming encompasses a wide range of techniques for slowing down motor vehicle traffic to provide an environment more supportive of walking and bicycling and safer for road users. Traffic calming measures include a wide range of solutions from which vertical deflections of the street occur to be most effective in terms of speed reduction. However speed reduction and driving technique can have ambiguous influence of environmental pollution. The paper aims to assess the influence of different calming measures on pollutant emissions based on driver’s behaviour and the intensity of speed changes. The measurements of speed were conducted in two Polish cities differentiated in terms of applied calming techniques.
Design/methodology/approach: The methodology includes measurements and estimates of private cars in-field measurements in relation to pollutant emission. In-field evaluations have been conducted using average spot speed and intensity of speed changes expressed by deceleration and acceleration values. The data were collected by utilizing a portable wireless GPS data logger that allowed monitoring and recording vehicle’s position along tested street sections in 1 second intervals. Traffic calming in Bialystok is mainly provided by installation of separated measures while in Pulawy a complex solution applied according to Dutch standards is present.
Findings: The findings show the different influence of peculiar calming measures on driving technique and related vehicle pollutant emission. It has been found that single calming measures applied as vertical deflections despite their high effectiveness in speed reduction can contribute to higher pollutant emission opposite to complex schemes that can enforce reduced speed across the whole calmed area and contribute to lowering environmental pollution through providing smoother driving conditions.
Originality/value: Conducted investigations show that urban planners and traffic engineers while planning the implementation of traffic calming measures should consider not only on the effective speed reduction and related safety improvement but also should consider the improvement of living standard in calmed residential area in terms of lowering pollutant emission level.
Keyword: traffic calming measures, driver’s behaviour, driving dynamics, environmental pollution.

Co-occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in fermented and dried cocoa beans using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
Authors: Aroyeun S.O., Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria
Imafidon T., National Food and Drug Administration and Control, Nigeria

Purpose: This study investigated the co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in fermented and dried cocoa beans from 14 cocoa producing states of Nigeria.
Design/methodology/approach: A one thousand and twenty five samples of cocoa beans was sampled from 14 cocoa producing states of Nigeria. The samples were made into a 60 composite samples representing the state, local government and cocoa producing community of Nigeria. The cocoa beans were evaluated for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Aflatoxin was the most prominent toxin in fermented cocoa beans.
Findings: Significant differences were found in the levels of both ochratoxin and aflatoxins. Method of fermentation, duration of fermentation, drying method and time were significant factors. Cocoa fermented in the major producing areas of the country was found to be low in both ochratoxins A and aflatoxin in our samples. On average, the highest levels of OTA were found in samples obtained from Ondo state Abia state, and Oyo state respectively. 0.39, 0.34, 0.31aflatoxins. 0.66, 0.530.53 and 0.43.
Originality/value: This is the first report of co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in fermented cocoa beans from Nigeria.

Compliance of imported tea clones (NGC1-NGC 76) to Nigerian industrial quality standards as suitable raw materials for black and green tea production in Nigeria
Author: Aroyeun S.O., Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria

Purpose: This experiment was designed to characterize the chemical components of 76 tea clonal materials .(NGC1-76).imported into Nigeria on their suitability as raw materials for the production of Green tea
Design/methodology/Approach: The 76 tea clonal materials imported from China were established on the Mambilla Highland (1450m above mean sea level) The tea were plucked in the manner of material for green tea production (1+2) using the bud and the first two leaves and dried at 100OC temperature before the chemical analysis. Quality parameters assessed include, % moisture content, %Tannin, %crude fibre, % total ash and caffeine .The quality of the raw materials were compared with the standard quality parameters as recommended by the international standards for tea using protocols of ISO9763, ISO 1575, ISO5498, for moisture content, crude fibre and total ash. .
Findings : The % MC of the tea clones differed significantly among the imported tea clones and between indigenous commercial clones and ranged between 5.67-7,17%, whereas the caffeine contents was within 1.67-2,39%,. The Tannin content of the tea were significantly different (p<0.05) and these fell within 1.25-4,77%. The % crude fibre and the total ash TA were within 13.3-15.41 and 5.02-6.58% for CF and TA respectively. It was observed that the chemical parameters were significantly different between Nigerian clones and the imported varieties. This might be due to locational differences or clonal variations as Nigerian clonal materials established earlier was imported from Kenya while the new materials were from China.
Conclusion: In conclusion, all the quality assessed fell within the recommended quality characteristics of as recommended by the National Industrial standards (NIS) and can serve as suitable raw material for black and tea production
Originality/value: This study is the first on quality of foreign tea clone planted in the Nigerian environment
Keywords: Green tea, Highlands, Kenya, China, quality.

Redefining Sustainability
Author: Art Jones, Dream Factory, Atlanta, USA

Purpose: To explore the current state of political policies, media coverage, and military events initiated by western countries against key African and Middles Eastern countries has now created an environment of instability.
Design: The substance underpinning this paper will be newspaper articles, to news reports, several documentaries, and book research. It shall be compiled to clearly present a logical sequence of events.
Methodology: A study of western political policies and media coverage will be studied, examined in an effort to ascertain cause and effect, and its ultimate impact in shaping the present atmosphere of insecurity that is emerging across the West.
Approach: Establish a thesis predicated upon the promulgated notion of “sustainability” and how it has traditionally connoted impoverished, third world, less than. Then examine how war-like events occurring in key African and Middle Eastern countries have bread a climate of insecurity and fear resulting in Western countries now concerned about whether they can maintain their quality of life.
Keywords: Sustainability, maintenance, security, insecurity, Islam, Media, politics, western.

Linking health impacts with transportation decisions and mode choices: a case study
Authors: Afra AlSuwaidi, Sharjah, UAE
Mariam Jaroor, Dubai, UAE

Purpose: Transportation and public health are seemingly two distinct domains, yet even a casual examination reveals many linkages between the two. Some of those linkages are practically consequential and of significant implications to policy making. Yet, health impacts are rarely considered in transport decision making or when modal choices are studies, evaluated or made.
Design/Methodology/Approach: engineering and conceptual designs were proposed that would encourage bicycle and pedestrian traffic modes through shared bicycle-rentals and pedestrian walkways linked to remote parking lots on the Campus of the American University of Sharjah. System users were polled to assess the likely mode split, and average trip lengths of both modes were estimated based on likely destinations within Campus. Metabolic Equivalent (MET), defined as the amount of oxygen consumed while sitting at rest, is used to express the energy cost of the bicycling and walking activities associated with the proposed transportation designs and their associated modal choices.
Findings: transportation system or component designs and modal choices can be easily, and quantitatively, associated with their health impact equivalents thus making the incorporation of health impacts in transportation decisions and/or designs easier than typically portrayed. Other qualitative health benefits of transport improvements/choices were present (e.g., those of shading) but not quantified. Not all transportation designs, improvement, or choices are easily quantifiable. The case study presented in this research demonstrates that: 1) achieving public health impacts of specific mode choices are possible and can be quantified, 2) transport decisions can easily be made to serve public health and achieve measurable benefits and, by implication, 3) transport system improvements and mode choices can be structured and used as public health tools and enablers of positive change in community public health.
Originality/Value: this study is the first of its kind. The study presents a practical approach/framework that can be applied to quantify health impacts of transportation system improvements and mode changes. With increased awareness of the interactions between transport choices and public health, this study presents a practical and modular approach to bridging the gap between transport/traffic engineering and public health.
Keywords: transportation modes, public health, metabolic equivalent, bicycling, walking, health impacts.

Assessment of impacts of harsh weather and user attitudes on sustainable transport options in Dubai: the case of metro and transit bus use in hot and humid weather
Authors: Ali El Masri, American University of Sharjah, UAE
Ghassan Abu-Lebdeh, American University of Sharjah, UAE

Purpose: This research aims to examine the impacts of harsh environments (hot and humid weather) on use of sustainable transport modes (specifically mass transit) when users have a choice and reasonable access to such modes. The research also aims to determine the influence of relevant socio-economic characteristics on users’ mode selections given the harsh weather.
Design/Methodology/Approach: A random representative sample of Dubai transport system users were polled to determine their mode selections when a choice actually exits. Reasoning for stated choices and other socio-economic factors were solicited. Suitable statistical hypotheses were tested to assure the validity and significant of the findings.
Findings: Although majority of users stated that harsh weather is an influencing factor in their mode choice, the difference in the responses was not statistically significant to support a conclusion that the harsh weather of Dubai is mode selection determining factor. Users were also not sensitive to modest changes in fuel prices. Sizable increases (3- and 4-fold) in fuel prices were found to likely induce a change in attitude and perhaps cause a modal shift in favor of the more sustainable modes of metro and transit bus.
Originality/Value: The study presents answers on the likely contribution of harsh weather to the low percentage of commuter trips use mass transit in Dubai. The study also exposes the likely influence of increasein fuel prices on commuter’s mode choices. The findings have significant implications to transport polices and funding of different modes in the area or areas with similar weather and socio-economic characteristics.
Keywords: harsh weather, transit use, mode choice, fuel prices.

Exploring the challenge for future sustainable development in power sector
Authors: Mostafa Mohamad, Salford Business School, University of Salford, UK
John Anuge, Salford Business School, University of Salford, UK

In recent times, the global pressure on the environment has been a major issue to attaining future sustainable development. In this study the researchers will be exploring the recent challenges for sustainable development in power sectors in UK as a European country and also looking at Nigeria as an African country with its unstable epileptic power supply despite the trillions of dollars investment in same sector over the year and many scholars are of the opinion that power sector is a major factor to the nation’s economic setback in recent times as a reflection. The power sector is crucial to the attainment of a sustainable development whilst considering the clamour to acquire nuclear power stations and deterrents in recent time by political leaders, heads of governments democratic or otherwise (Arms control, 2015). Currently in UK, the renewable technologies use natural energy to make electricity, including other fuel sources as; wind, wave, marine, hydro, biomass and solar (Energy UK, 2015).

Research aim: The aim of this research is to explore the challenges of sustainable development and to share knowledge on the possible ways to tackle these challenges.
Approach / methodology: The qualitative method will used and the data will be collected with the use of questionnaire with open ended questions, case studies and documents reviews.
Findings: The findings will be based on the various issues raised as challenges and the questionnaires that will be administered in this study.
Limitations: Time and data collection
Social implications: With paper presentations in this conference, knowledge and ideas will be shared, exchanged with the intension of influencing the participants that could transfer it back to their organisations and to the society.

Rhetorical bottomless basket case vs Bangladesh’s success with the MDGs
Authors: Samsul Hoque, Bangladesh Civil Service, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Moazzem Hossain, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Brisbane

Purpose: This year (2015) is the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) initiative launched by the UN under the Millennium Declaration 2000. There were eight goals of the MDGs and the aim was to reduce each by half by 2015 from 1990 level. Bangladesh has its share of achievements in meeting all these goals. In particular, the nation reduced poverty by half well before 2015. In achieving sanitation target Bangladesh made major breakthrough in providing access to both rural and urban people. This makes Bangladesh a role model for the developing world in two MDG fronts: improved sanitation access and poverty reduction. This paper attempts to investigate these two issues and analyse the reasons behind the success and lessons for other developing nations.
Design/ Methodology/Approach: Poverty reduction will be measured from both secondary macro data and primary micro data from a survey carried out in 2014. The methods used are headcount ratio (HCR) and in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms. These are acceptable approaches used for poverty assessment in developing nations. The sanitation performance will be assessed from secondary data available from UNICEF and WHO database. The performance in both rural and urban sanitation facilities will be compared and the factors for improved sanitation will be identified and analysed statistically.
Findings/Limitations: So far it has been established that poverty wise Bangladesh achieved the MDGs’ number one goal ahead of time (2015) and in the area of sanitation the country is approaching close to achieving the goal. However, these findings need investigating further from primary data and make results available to evaluate gaps in reporting.
Original Value: The study will make original contribution towards the debate between the nation’s rhetorical image as bottomless basket case and success with the MDGs in two fronts: poverty reduction by half from 1990 level and doubling sanitation facilities from 1990 level. It is important to know the nation’s stand between rhetoric and reality for future development policies.

Framework for a decision matrix in green project management processes
Authors: Mustafa Al-Tekreeti, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Salwa Beheiry, The American University of Sharjah, UAE

Purpose: Develop a decision matrix for Green Project Management Processes (GPMPs) in commercial construction projects. GPMPs can assist in decoding all of the information required to make green-conscious decisions at various stages of a project.
Methodology: Integrate the environmental factors into the traditional Project Management Processes (PMPs) of major construction projects. The integrated product is worked into a process index, and the Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) method is used to prioritize the GPMPs according to a pre-set criteria.
Findings: Research established the theoretical backing of green practices integration in the traditional PMPs, by creating an AHP weighted GPMP index that is linked to usable decision matrix.
Originality: Develops a fresh methodology to facilitate green decision-making in the project management of commercial construction projects.
Keywords: Project Management Process; Green Project Management Processes; Decision Matrix; Green Indicators; Analytical Hierarchy Processes; Environmental Management.

Effect of Hot Weather on Walking Behavior in Doha
Authors: Khaled Shaaban, Qatar University, Qatar
Deepti Muley, Qatar University, Qatar

Purpose: Doha, an urban area in the Arabian Gulf, experiences hot weather conditions for most of the times in the year. The temperature varies greatly between winter and summer seasons. This paper presents the variation in walking behavior of pedestrians for the two seasons using data from observational surveys.
Design Methodology: A densely populated neighborhood, with various land uses, located in the heart of downtown of Doha was selected as a study site. Data for two seasons were collected for two days.
Findings: The results indicated clearly that the hot weather adversely affected the propensity of walking significantly by reducing the pedestrian volume by more than 50%. Logistics regression models were developed to identify the different characteristics of the demographics.
Originality Value: This research is one of the first to study the effect of weather conditions on the pedestrian volumes in a hot weather climate environment.
Keywords: walking behavior, walkability, weather, land use, climate environment, neighborhood characteristics.

Study the variability of water quality in a large distribution network
Authors: Mohammed Maruf Mortula; Kazi Parvez Fattah; Tarig Ali, The American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE

Purpose: Maintaining a healthy water distribution infrastructure is the key to providing good quality services to the consumers for long period of time. Maintaining the integrity of the infrastructure is not possible without appropriate management of water quality throughout the water distribution system. Water distribution network in the city of Sharjah, UAE is facing one such challenge. Due to its large and diverse network characteristics, understanding the water quality pattern is critical to appropriate management. The objective of this paper was to study the variability of the water quality parameters in Sharjah water distribution network.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Water quality monitoring data was collected in 46 different locations throughout the distribution network within Sharjah Water Electricity Authority. Several water quality parameters were monitored including pH, electrical conductivity, residual chlorine, iron and fluoride. Graphical and Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis was conducted on the variability of water quality parameters throughout the distribution network.
Findings: The results indicated that the old part of the city is more venerable to water quality degradation than the new distribution network. Even though all the water quality parameters were within the limits set by the government, there are sections of distribution network that can be maintained with priority to ensure sustainable infrastructure.
Originality/Value: This study provides an important understanding of the variability of water quality through SEWA water distribution network. Hence, the study revealed the sections of the distribution network that needs to be managed for sustainable development for the city of Sharjah.
Keywords: Water Distribution Network, Water Quality, Infrastructure Integrity, Sustainability, Spatial Variability, Infrastructure Management.

Impact of Teamwork Skills on Students’ Creativity: A Case of Classroom Educational Program
Author: Siham El-Kafafi, ICL Education Group, Auckland, New Zealand

Purpose: The aim of this research is to find out the impact of utilizing both Tuchman’s Model and Belbin’s team roles on students’ creativity in classroom activities, team effectiveness and the success of teaching students teamwork skills as a mean of arming them with the required skills for their future professional careers in real life.
Design/Approach: This research reports on a case study of teaching Post Graduate Diploma Students Teamwork skills of two different classes. The case study utilizes Bruce Tuckman’s Model of Team Formation: 1) Forming, 2) Storming, 3) Norming, 4) Performing and 5) Adjourning and Belbin’s (2002) team roles as a means of keeping the students focused on achieving their team goals and maintaining a positive relationship with the aim of effective performance.
Findings: As a result of following Tuckman’s Model and Belbin’s team roles by the two graduate classes, the following were some of the initial research findings:

  • Team ground rules assisted students in keeping team values and team cohesiveness.
  • Team members assumed all of Belbin’s 9 roles depending in the task allocated to them to fulfil the assignment requirements.
  • Leadership role tended to be rotated among all team members within each team.
  • All teams demonstrated creativity in designing their team logos.
  • Tendency to assume positive behaviors than the negative behaviors demonstrated in both class engagement and final marks of their course assessments.

Originality/Value: This topic is important because teamwork skills and the ability to collaborate with others in diverse group settings is a requirement in the modern global organization. Accordingly, it’s a skill sought after by organizations all over the world. Furthermore, as an educator I believe that the main objective of my profession is to train and equip my students with the required skills for their future professional careers. One of those important skills is the ability to work collaboratively and effectively in teams to achieve high standards of performance to attain their goals successfully.
Research Limitations: This research reports on findings of a case study of a specific Post-Graduate Diploma which is relevant to a specific cohort of students i.e. results cannot be generalized on all types of student cohorts because other contributing factors may play a role in the equation.
Keywords: teaching teamwork skills in post-graduate education, Tuckman’s Model of Team Formation, Belbin’s Team Roles, team effectiveness and student creativity.

Soil Productivity and Food Security in Sudan: Current Situation and Challenges
Authors: Sarra Ahmed M. Saad, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Sudan
Moawia Yahia Babiker, Ekhtibarat Soil and Water Tests Service, Sudan
Suliman GasmElseed, Omdurman Islamic University, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Sudan

Problem: Sudan as one of the developing world already contends with chronic poverty and food crisis. Soil productivity presents yet another significant challenge to be met. The decrease in agricultural production during the growing seasons adversely affected human lives and causes scarcity of major crops in Sudanese markets as the results prices increased and the import from outside the country also increased to fill the gap even for major crops e.g. wheat and some vegetable.
Methodology: In order to assess the agricultural potentials in Khartoum State, field survey was conducted by collecting data from different schemes and soil samples were also taken and analyzed for quality measures.
Findings: Results revealed that most agricultural schemes grow vegetables and fodder throughout the year and also the significant reduction in agricultural production in all schemes which reached up to 40 % compared to the last 10 years. The increase in temperature especially during the winter season enforced some farmers to change their crop bands. Irrigation water supply; spread of diseases, high cost of fertilizers, soil erosion and lack of agricultural extension also affected crop production in most schemes.
Value: Therefore it is recommended that urgent measures should be implemented in order to increase agricultural production. Land management programs and fertilization strategies must be considered.  Implementation of awareness programs about the hazards of climatic change and temperature increase especially among farmers and decision makers for better planning and future outlook is highly needed.

Differentiating Trade Instruments and Promoting Sustainable Development: The evolution of the EUs approach and inherent contradictions
Authors: Jodie Keane, Economic Adviser, Commonwealth Secretariat
Raphaelle Faure, Research Officer, Overseas Development Institute, London

Since the sustainable development goals were adopted by the international community last year, there is a need to translate these inspirations into an implementation agenda. The European Union (EU) has for some time leveraged trade as a mechanism through which to promote sustainable development. However, there are areas of policy incoherence. This paper assesses the changing global trading landscape and the ways in which the EU is adapting to this, including promoting sustainable development. This process has accelerated in view of the EU’s 2020 Strategy and trade policy under Commissioner De Gucht’s, and subsequently in view of the new EU trade strategy published in October 2015 under Commissioner Malstrom. In view of the end of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement with the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, the ascendency of Global Value Chains, coupled with the emergence of mega-regional trade agreements we conclude regarding some of the inherent tensions with a view to promoting policy coherence whilst differentiating trade instruments and supporting international development.
Purpose: to analyse how the EUs approach to the promotion of sustainable development has evolved over time and to identify areas of policy coherence and incoherence
Design/methodology/approach: the main approach is qualitative, based on secondary literature review and some primary research. The methodology is therefore qualitative. The design of the paper is as follows: Section 1 reviews the post-Lisbon trade policy making context; Section 2 the use of acquired powers; Section 3 reviews application in view of sustainable development objectives; Section 4 concludes.
Findings: We review changes to EU trade policy and situate this discussion within the context of a rapidly changing global trade landscape. We draw attention to areas of policy coherence as well as incoherence. With a new Commission, a new European Parliament (EP) and a new President of the European Council agreed in 2014, our analysis also considers the implications of these changes on the future trade and development agenda of the EU.
Originality/value: This is the first time that qualitative analyses have been undertaken on the post-Lisbon structure of trade policy making in view of the promotion of sustainable development objectives
Keywords: trade preferences, sustainable development, African Caribbean and Pacific, policy coherence Lisbon Treaty global value chains.

The involvement of nutraceuticals to sustainable healthcare in Europe in the context of depression
Author: Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: Studies evidence-based records on the use of some nutraceuticals in Europe in the context of depression, and represent their specific anti depressant properties to achieve the targets of the European health policy ‘Investing in Health’ and hence upkeep sustainable healthcare systems.
Methodology: The literature was gained by searching MEDLINE (PubMed), Google Scholar, PsychINFO, and Quertile databases and retrieving relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals.
Findings: Results provided evidence of a range of nutraceuticals, which are of potential benefits in management of depression and psychiatric disorders. Studies support the anti depressant properties of Omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosylmethionine, Dehydroepiandrosterone, serotonin, tryptophan vitamins (niacin, thiamine, vitamin B12, and folate) minerals, (Ca Mg Zn, Se, Fe) and Some phytochemical. Talbinah (barley water) is an example of a nutritious food used by Arab and Muslims could reduce depression. It is potentially safe for sedation as the content of neurotransmitters is raised following daily oral administration of Talbinah (barley water).
Practical implications: Randomized controlled trials continue to provide evidence for the nutraceuticals use for mood disorders and certainly, the evaluation process continues when new information about a therapy is generated.
Social implications: Nutraceuticals emphasize the Person-focused Medicine, which offers a   psychophysical balance to the individual
Originality/value: Nutraceuticals have specific antidepressant properties that found to be of benefit in psychiatric population and reduce the pharmacotherapeutic side effects.
Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Depression; Talbinah; Antidepressant; Sustainable; Europe.